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《平等、参与、共享:新中国残疾人权益保障70年》白皮书(9)(中英对照)

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VIII. Personal Freedom and Non-Discrimination

八、人身自由与非歧视
China prohibits any forms of disability discrimination. It has drawn up specific measures to protect the right to life and personal freedom of persons with disabilities and ensure that they enjoy equal rights as other citizens.
中国禁止基于残疾的歧视,制定特别保护措施,保护残疾人的生命权和人身自由,保障残疾人平等享有各项公民权利。
Personal rights of persons with disabilities are fully protected by laws. In China, the Criminal Law, General Provisions of the Civil Law, Tort Law, Marriage Law, Law on the Protection of Minors, Labor Contract Law, Mental Health Law, Anti-domestic Violence Law and many other laws define the personal rights of persons with disabilities and stipulate the punishments for maltreating, abandoning, or maliciously injuring them. The Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities makes full and detailed provisions for their personal rights and defines measures to protect them.
残疾人人身权利得到法律严格保护。《中华人民共和国刑法》《中华人民共和国民法总则》《中华人民共和国侵权责任法》《中华人民共和国婚姻法》《中华人民共和国未成年人保护法》《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》《中华人民共和国精神卫生法》《中华人民共和国反家庭暴力法》等相关法律对残疾人的人身权利作出相应规定,对虐待、遗弃、故意伤害残疾人等行为依法予以惩处。《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》全面具体规定了残疾人人身权利及保障措施。
Efforts have been made to adjust mechanisms for protecting the personal freedom of those with disabilities. The state has abolished the system to shelter and send back vagrants and beggars – including those with disabilities – to their homes, but provides assistance to them in line with their own free choice. The practice of isolating lepers from family or community has been abrogated. The central government has established a nationwide program to subsidize local governments for the management and treatment of serious mental illnesses, so as to register, report and rehabilitate such patients through medical treatment and follow-up.
适时调整相关机制保障残疾人人身自由。废除收容遣送制度,对包括残疾人在内的流浪乞讨人员实行自愿救助;废除对麻风病人实行严格隔离的做法,让患者回归家庭和社区;实施“中央补助地方严重精神障碍管理治疗项目”,严重精神障碍患者登记报告、救治救助、随访服务等已覆盖全国。
Action has been stepped up against crimes that violate the personal freedom of persons with disabilities. The Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities forbids any entity or individual to force any person with disability to work by means of violence, threat or illegal restriction of personal freedom. The Amendment VI to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China adds a crime of "organizing any disabled person or any minor to go begging", and the Amendment IX to the Criminal Law adds a clause defining the criminal responsibility borne by anyone with a duty to ward or nurse a disabled person who maltreats the person under his or her guardianship or provides improper care. The Supreme People's Court and the CDPF jointly issued the "Directives on Effectively Protecting the Lawful Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities in Trial and Enforcement" and other regulatory documents, requiring stiff punishments in accordance with the law for crimes thatviolate the rights and interests of these people, so as to effectively ensure their safety and protect their property. The Supreme People's Procuratorate and other departments issued the "Directives on Effectively Protecting the Lawful Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities in Procuratorial Work", requiring severe punishments in accordance with the law for crimes like forcing persons with intellectual disabilities to labor or trafficking disabled women and children. The Ministry of Public Security launched a special campaign against crimes that force or lure disabled minors to beg or deaf juveniles to commit crimes. The Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security also initiated a special effort to control illegal employment.
加大对侵犯残疾人人身自由犯罪的打击力度。《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》禁止任何单位和个人以暴力、威胁或者非法限制人身自由的手段强迫残疾人劳动。为切实保障残疾人人身自由和安全,刑法修正案(六)增加“强迫组织残疾人、儿童乞讨罪”,刑法修正案(九)增加对残疾人负监护、看护职责的人虐待残疾人,情节恶劣的,要承担刑事责任条款。最高人民检察院等部门发布《关于在检察工作中切实维护残疾人合法权益的意见》,要求对强迫智力残疾人劳动、拐卖残疾妇女儿童等违法犯罪行为依法从重打击。公安部开展整治强迫、诱骗未成年残疾人流浪乞讨和强迫、拐骗聋哑青少年违法犯罪行为专项行动。人力资源社会保障部开展整治非法用工专项行动。最高人民法院、中国残联联合发布《关于在审判执行工作中切实维护残疾人合法权益的意见》等规范性文件,对侵害残疾人权益的犯罪行为,依法严厉惩处,切实保护残疾人的人身财产安全。
Laws have been enacted to prohibit any forms of disability discrimination. China's laws and regulations contain detailed provisions to combat discrimination and ensure reasonable accommodation. The Employment Promotion Law of the People's Republic of China adopted in 2007 stipulates that an employer recruiting staff must not discriminate persons with disabilities. The Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities revised in 2008 defines the principle of anti-discrimination: "Discrimination on the basis of disability shall be prohibited. Insult of and disservice to persons with disabilities shall be prohibited. Disparagement of and infringement upon the dignity of persons with disabilities by means of mass media or any other means shall be prohibited." Since 2010, China has enacted the Mental Health Law, Regulations on Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities, and Measures for the Administration of Air Transport for Persons with Disabilities, and revised the Regulations on the Education of Persons with Disabilities and Regulations on the Employment of Persons with Disabilities, all of which include detailed clauses to combat discrimination.
立法禁止基于残疾的歧视。法律法规对反歧视和合理便利作出具体规定。2007年制定的《中华人民共和国就业促进法》明确规定,用人单位招用人员,不得歧视残疾人。2008年修订的《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》明确了反歧视原则:禁止基于残疾的歧视,禁止侮辱、侵害残疾人,禁止通过大众传播媒介或者其他方式贬低损害残疾人人格。2010年以来,制定《中华人民共和国精神卫生法》《残疾预防和残疾人康复条例》《残疾人航空运输管理办法》以及修订《残疾人教育条例》《残疾人就业条例》等相关法律法规,增加了不歧视的内容,并对不歧视作出具体规定。

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supreme [sju:'pri:m]

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adj. 最高的,至上的,极度的

 
violate ['vaiəleit]

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vt. 违犯,亵渎,干扰,侵犯,强奸

 
transport [træns'pɔ:t]

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n. 运输、运输工具;(常用复数)强烈的情绪(狂喜或狂怒

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specific [spi'sifik]

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adj. 特殊的,明确的,具有特效的
n. 特

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discriminate [di'skrimineit]

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vt. 区分,区别对待
vi. 辨别,差别对待

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assistance [ə'sistəns]

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n. 帮助,援助

 
campaign [kæm'pein]

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n. 运动,活动,战役,竞选运动
v. 从事运

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combat ['kɔmbət]

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n. 争斗,战斗
vt. 打斗
vi

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social ['səuʃəl]

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adj. 社会的,社交的
n. 社交聚会

 
violence ['vaiələns]

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n. 暴力,猛烈,强暴,暴行

 


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